PMC1944957. Retrieved 2010-11-23. PMID17896540. ^ Patient controlled analgesia for adults. Retrieved 2010-11-21. Abbott Park, Illinois: Abbott Laboratories. Levy (2007). "Injuries".
JAMA 1988;259:242-247 . Iontocaine is one example of such a system. "Is methoxyflurane a suitable battlefield analgesic?" (PDF). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". 16 (2): 97101. ISSN0003-2999. If a PCA device is not programmed properly for the patient this can result in an under-dose or overdose in a medicine. The system may also be inappropriate for certain individuals, for example patients with learning difficulties or confusion. doi:10.1093/bja/44.5.517. The 15milliliter supply of methoxyflurane would typically last for two to three hours, during which time the user would often be partly amnesic to the sense of pain; the device could be refilled if necessary. The Analgizer was found to be safe, effective, and simple to administer in obstetric patients during childbirth, as well as for patients with bone fractures and joint dislocations, and for dressing changes on burn patients. When used for labor analgesia, the Analgizer allows labor to progress normally and with no apparent adverse effect on Apgar scores. All vital signs remain normal in obstetric patients, newborns, and injured patients. The Analgizer was widely utilized for analgesia and sedation until the early 1970s, in a manner that foreshadowed the patient-controlled analgesia infusion pumps of today. The Analgizer inhaler was withdrawn in 1974, but use of methoxyflurane as a sedative and analgesic continues in Australia and New Zealand in the form of the Penthrox inhaler..
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